Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Periodic table gets some flex


Periodic table gets some flex

Committee’s revisions give chemical isotopes their due

By Rachel Ehrenberg



accessRESETTING THE TABLE In a new version of the periodic table, the atomic weights of elements with more than one stable form, such as chlorine, are shown as a range, while elements with one stable form, like arsenic, have an exact weight.

Just as the weight listed on your driver’s license doesn’t necessarily reflect your actual poundage, the official atomic weights of the chemical elements are actually more like ballpark estimates than precise constants. In acknowledgment of this natural variation, the official weights of 10 chemical elements will no longer be expressed as single numbers, but as ranges. The adjustments, published online December 12 inPure and Applied Chemistry, are the first in an overhaul of the atomic weight of almost every element on the periodic table.

Instead of being described by a single fuzzy number, the atomic weights of oxygen, hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine and thallium will now be expressed as intervals. The change brings long overdue recognition to isotopes, versions of the 118 elements that are lighter or heavier than their standard, more common counterparts.

Most elements have a preferred, energetically stable form that dominates in nature. For example, oxygen, the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, is most comfortable having eight neutrons and eight protons in its nucleus (the latter of which defines it as oxygen). But oxygen can gain an extra neutron or two, changing the element’s weight (electrons are also variable but so light that their weight isn’t taken into account). These heavier versions, or isotopes, have been presented as existing in constant quantities no matter the source. For example, it’s commonly said that more than 99 percent of oxygen is the normal eight-neutron variety — called oxygen-16 — while the heavier versions exist in fractions of one percent.

But those proportions aren’t set in stone, and the new adjustment to the official weights acknowledges that, says Tyler Coplen, head of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory in Virginia.

For example, ratios of the three oxygen isotopes will differ depending on whether the oxygen is in air, groundwater, fruit juice or bone. This variation is what makes isotopes such a powerful scientific tool: the relative ratios of the different carbon isotopes can tell scientists if ivory came from an elephant that ate shrubby savanna plants or woody jungle trees. Similarly, testosterone supplements are plant-derived and have a different isotopic carbon signature than testosterone made by the body (to Tour de France cyclist Floyd Landis’ chagrin).

“Isotope studies extend from studies of previous climates to dating artifacts to weapons programs and biomedical applications,” says James Adelstein, a professor at Harvard Medical School and coeditor of a National Research Council report on isotopes in medicine and the life sciences.

Previously, a given element’s official atomic weight was actually an average of this variation. But as the number of discovered isotopes grew — there are more than 2,000, but only 118 elements — weights kept needing adjustment. These numerical tweaks implied that the numbers couldn’t be pinned down with precision, when in fact such measurements are more precise than ever, says Coplen, who headed the international task force charged with surveying various isotope abundances in nature so that the numbers could be revised.

“It should have been done a decade ago,” Coplen says.

Now that it has completed the initial round, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry’s commission in charge of atomic weights will reassess the rest of the elements in the coming years. Gold, fluorine, aluminum and sodium, each of which exists in only one stable version, will be left alone.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Computer- Rakhega aapke Password ko yaad


Aaj ke es digital-world me hum bahut sari sewayon ka use karte hai, aur hume utne hi jyade password ko yaad rakhne padte hai. ATM se lekar Computer and Mail dekhne tak PIN, Password ya Pass-phrase jaise Private & Screte combination ko bataye bina aage badna muskil hai. Aur hum en sabhi ke liye ek hi Password rakh bhi nahi sakte, becouse esse hacking ka dar rehata hai always.So read here and enjoy ur life safely…


keepass ko aap Windows per easily installed kar sakte hai. ise aap i-phone, pocket-pc, android’s smart phone per bhi installed kar sakte hai.

Main functions of keepass is--------

>automatic password generation,

>login & password related information ko copy-pest karna,

>automatically form filling,

>screte’s notes ko safely rakhna….


isme rakhi sari information ek screte & encripted database me LOCK rehta hai.

           Aap ise se easily download kar sakte hai……….



we can easily use lastpass. lastpass Operating systems, brousers, & mobile plateforms pe easily work karta hai. eska encripted password database kholne ke liye aapko SIRF es Software ka password yaad rakhne ki jarurat hai.

   lastpass ki khasiyat ye hai ki-------

           aap eske under se hi different-different sites per direct login kar sakte hai.

      2 staron wali authentication system se lais lastpass ko Free download kar windows, linux, & mac plateform per use kar sakte hai. Aap esse se easily download kar sakte hai…



handypassword windows per use hone wala Multi-user password manager & form-filler software hai. Esse computer ke alawe USB-drive per bhi use kar sakte hai.

         Ye password and screte information ko encript kar ek safe database me rakhta hai. wbsites per use honewali Username and Password jaisi information ye apne aap webpage per dal deta hai & aapko password yaad rakhne ki problems se bachata hai.

Ab esme password recoveri ki bhi activity jod di gayi hai, jo forget password ko yaad dilane me humari help karti hai. esse aap se download kar sakte hai………….



ye sirf password manager hi nahi, form-filler & contacts manager bhi hai. ye aapke Pin, Password & another screte informations ko encript karke apne database me safely rakhta hai.

   ek baar esme jaruri information dalne ke baad webpages per form-filling ke liye eske automatic form-filler ka use kiya jaa sakta hai. ye aapke liye strong and safe Password select karne me bhi aapka help kar sakta hai.

ye aapki files, folders, disc etc ko bhi encript kar sakta hai. esse aap se download kar sakte hai…..



roboform 2 different-different types BASIC(FREE) & PRO(PAID) me present hai. ye aapke  Username, Password etc ko safely rakh sakta hai. aap pehle se hi jin websites ke member hai, unme Username & Password dalne ke liye and New websites me Registration karte samay essential information ko fill karne ke liye eska use kiya jaa sakta hai. esme Encripted notes & Random password generation jaisi activities bhi hai.

          esse banane walo ka ye dawa hai ki – bahut hi safe hone ke karan esse Fortune 500+ companies me use kiya jaa raha hai. esse aap se download kar sakte hai………



splash-id password manager windows ke sath-sath Mak operating system, I-pad, I-phone, & I-pod touch per bhi work karta aapke sabhi password ko safe rakhta hai & unke back-up ki subhidha bhi dete rehta hai.

        Password ke alawe Credit-card no., Registration code, ATM Pin, etc ko safely rakhta hai. splash-id ko aap sirf 1 Month hi FREE use kar sakte hai .

       Agar esse permanant rakhna chahte hai, to aapko eska Paid Version kharidna hoga. esse aap easily se download kar sakte hai………

Friday, December 17, 2010



A hotel is an establishment that provides lodging, usually on a short-term basis. Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as a restaurant, a swimming pool or child care. Some hotels have conference services and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location.


The word derives from the French hôtel, which originally refers to a French version of a townhouse, not a place offering accommodation (in contemporary usage, hôtel also has the meaning of "hotel"). The French spelling (with the circumflex) was once also used in English, but is now rare.

Hotels differ from motels in that most motels have drive-up, exterior entrances to the rooms, while hotels tend to have interior entrances to the rooms.


a building where travelers can pay for lodging and meals and other services.

A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite ...


  • n French contexts an hôtel particulier is an urban "private house" of a grand sort. Whereas an ordinary maison was built as part of a row, sharing party walls with the houses on either side and directly fronting on a street, an hôtel particulier was often free-standing, and by the eighteenth ...
  • The Hotel is a Singapore Chinese thriller drama which was telecast on Singapore's television station, Mediacorp, in 2000. It is a large-scale production, which has a total of 20 episodes, with more than 95% of Mediacorp Artistes appearing in the drama, mostly either as cameos or as guest characters.
  • Hotel is an American prime time drama series which aired on ABC from September 21, 1983 to May 5, 1988 in the timeslot following Dynasty.
  • Hotel is a 1965 novel by Arthur Hailey. It is the story of an independent New Orleans hotel, the St. Gregory, and its management's struggle to regain profitability and avoid being assimilated into the O'Keefe chain of hotels. The St. Gregory is supposedly based on the Roosevelt Hotel.
  • Hotel is a 2001 experimental thriller film directed by Mike Figgis.
  • Hotel is a 1967 Technicolor film adaptation of the novel Hotel written by Arthur Hailey. The film stars Rod Taylor, Catherine Spaak, Karl Malden, Kevin McCarthy, Michael Rennie, and Melvyn Douglas.
  • "Hotel" is the lead debut single from Cassidy's 2004 debut album Split Personality. The song was released as a single and charted in February 2004, reaching #4 in the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. The chorus is sang by R&B singer R. ...
  • Hotel is the seventh studio album by the musician Moby, first released internationally on March 14, 2005 and then on March 22, 2005 in the United States. Hotel was recorded and mixed at Moby's apartment, Electric Lady Studios, and Loho Studios in Manhattan, New York City. ...
  • Hotel (狂潮) is a TVB television series, premiered on 1 November 1976. Theme song "Hotel" (狂潮) composition and arrangement by Joseph Koo, lyricist by Wong Jim, sung by Susanna Kwan.
  • Hotel is a 2004 Austrian drama film directed by Jessica Hausner. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.
  • The band Hotel was a power pop group formed in Birmingham, Alabama in 1973 and disbanded in 1982. Although they had a strong regional following and were loaded top to bottom with highly-talented musicians, due to changing musical tastes and lackluster promotion, they failed to achieve stardom.
  • iTunes Originals – Moby is a digital compilation album by Moby from the iTunes Originals series, featuring re-recordings of songs from his 2005 studio album, Hotel. ...
  • City Sleeps is an American rock band from Atlanta, Georgia, formed in 2005 . The band started touring nationally in an attempt to build interest in themselves. City Sleeps was contacted by the producer John Feldmann, asking to work with them. ...
A small hotel in Mureck, Styria, Austria which has preserved its 1960s exterior and interior

A small hotel in Mureck,Styria,Austria

The lobby of the Hotel Reineldis

the lobby of the Hotel Reineldis


Commercial establishment providing lodging, meals, and other guest services. In general, to be called a hotel, an establishment must have a minimum of six letting bedrooms, at least three of which must have attached (ensuite) private bathroom facilities. Although hotels are classified into 'Star' categories (1-Star to 5-Star), there is no standard method of assigning these ratings, and compliance with customary requirements is voluntary. A US hotel with a certain rating, for example, is may look very different from a European or Asian hotel with the same rating, and would provide a different level of amenities, range of facilities, and quality of service. Whereas hotel chains assure uniform standards throughout, non-chain hotels (even within the same country) may not agree on the same standards. In Germany, for example, only about 30 percent of the hotels choose to comply with the provisions of the rules established by the German Hotels & Restaurants association. Although both WTO and ISO have been trying to persuade hotels to agree on some minimum requirements as world-wide norms, the entire membership of the Paris-based International Hotel & Restaurant (IH&RA) opposes any such move. According to IH&RA, to harmonize hotel classification based on a single grading (which is uniform across national boundaries) would be an undesirable and impossible task. As a rough guide: A 1-Star hotel provides a limited range of amenities and services, but adheres to a high standard of facility-wide cleanliness. A 2-Star hotel provides good accommodation and better equipped bedrooms, each with a telephone and attached private bathroom. A 3-Star hotel has more spacious rooms and adds high-class decorations and furnishings and color TV. It also offers one or more bars or lounges. A 4-Star hotel is much more comfortable and larger, and provides excellent cuisine (table d'hote and a la carte), room service, and other amenities. A 5-Star hotel offers most luxurious premises, widest range of guest services, as well as swimming pool and sport and exercise facilities. The Official Hotel Guide (published in the US, and followed world wide) has its own classification scheme that ranks hotels in nine categories as (1) Moderate Tourist Class, (2) Tourist Class, (3) Superior Tourist Class, (4) Moderate First Class, (5) Limited Service First Class, (6) First Class, (7) Moderate Deluxe, (8) Deluxe, and (9) Superior Deluxe.


  1. An establishment that provides accommodation and other services for paying guests; normally larger than a guest house, and often one of a chain.

Small but exclusive property that caters to the affluent clientele with an exceptional level of service at premium prices.

a usually large house or building where travellers, holidaymakers etc may receive food, lodging etc in return for payment The new hotel has over five hundred bedrooms.


an establishment that provides lodging and usually meals, entertainment, and various personal services for the public.

The 4-star Manor House Hotel at Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England. Built in the fourteenth century, the hotel has 48 rooms and 365 acres (1.5 km²) of gardens.

The 4-star Manor House Hotel at Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England


The cost and quality of hotels are usually indicative of the range and type of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourism worldwide, during the last decades of the 20th century standards, especially those of smaller establishments, have improved considerably. For the sake of greater comparability, rating systems have been introduced, with the one to five stars classification being most common.

Basic accommodation of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand only has largely been replaced by rooms with en-suite bathrooms. Other features found may be a TV, a telephone and an alarm clock. Food and drink may be supplied by a small refrigerator (usually referred to as "mini-bar") containing snacks and drinks (to be paid for on departure), and tea and coffee making facilities (cups, spoons, an electric kettle and sachets containing instant coffee, tea bags, sugar, and creamer).

However, in Japan the capsule hotel supplies minimal facilities and room space.

Hotels may be family-run or individually-owned or part of national and worldwide hotel chains.

In Australia, the word "hotel" often refers to a public house, a drinking establishment which does not necessarily provide accommodations. In India, the word may also refer to a restaurant, since earlier the best restaurants were always situated next to a good hotel.

Monday, December 13, 2010

Indian River


Rivers that flow into the sea are sorted geographically..., along the coast starting from the Bay of Bengal in the east, moving along the Indian coast southward till Kanyakumari, and moving northward along the Arabian Sea. Rivers that flow into other rivers are sorted by the proximity of their points of union to the sea: the lower in the list, the more upstream.

The biggest major rivers of India are:

  • flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Ganges (with its tributaries Yamuna, Kameika, Gomti, Chambal), Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri (and their main tributaries)
  • flowing into the Arabian Sea: Indus, Narmada, Tapti (and their main tributaries)

The remaining rivers are:

  • flowing into the inner part of India.
  • coastal rivers.


Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal

  • Subarnarekha
    • Kharkai
  • Damodar
  • Karnaphuli River from Mizoram and Bangladesh
  • Meghna River from India and Bangladesh
    • Titas River in Tripura
      • Haora River in Agartala
Brahmaputra River Basin
  • Brahmaputra River
    • Lohit River
    • Burhidihing River, also called Noa Dihing in its earlier course through Namdapha National Park
    • Kameng River
    • Disang
    • Dikhou
    • Bhogdoi
    • Kakodonga
    • Dhansiri River
    • Subanshiri
    • Kapili
    • Pagladiya
    • Manas River
    • Sankosh
    • Yamuna
    • Teesta River
      • Rangeet River
      • Lachen River
      • Lachung River
    • Dharla River in Bangladesh
      • Jaldhaka in [[Sikkim]
Ganges River Basin
  • Ganges River
    • Hooghly River (distributary)
      • Jalangi River
      • River Churni
      • Ichamati River
      • Damodar River
        • Barakar River
      • Rupnarayan River
      • Ajay River
      • siang
      • tirap
      • Mayurakshi River
      • Dwarakeswar River
      • Mundeswari River
    • Meghna River (distributary)
    • Padma River (distributary)
    • Budhi Gandak
    • Kosi River
    • Falgu River
    • Gandak at Patna
    • Son River
      • Koel River
      • Rihand River
      • Gopad River
        • Goini River
        • Neur River
      • Banas River
    • Ghaghara River (Gogra) or Karnali River in Nepal
    • Yamuna River
    • Gomti River
    • Ramganga River
      • Kho River
        • Malini River
        • Surkho River
    • Mahananda River
    • Mahakali River
    • Bhagirathi River
    • Alaknanda River
    • Gangi River
    • Beson River
    • Mangai River
    • Bhainsai River
    • Tamsa River
    • Karmanasha
West Bengal Coastal Rivers
Mahanadi River Basin
  • Mahanadi River
  • Brahmani River
  • Baitarani River
  • South Koel River near Rourkela
  • Sankh River
  • Devi River
  • Kusabhadra River
  • Daya River
  • Bhargavi River
  • Kadua River
Godavari River Basin
  • Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra states
    • Kolab River in Orissa State
    • Indravati River in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State and also in Chhattisgarh state
      • Bandiya River in Gadchiroli
Krishna River Basin
  • Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra states
    • Munneru River in Andhra Pradesh
      • Akeru River in Andhra Pradesh
    • Paleru River in Andhra Pradesh
    • Musi River in Andhra Pradesh
    • Tungabhadra River
      • Vedavathi River
        • Suvarnamukhi River
        • Veda River
        • Avathi River
      • Varada River
      • Tunga River
      • Bhadra River
    • Bhima River in Karnataka and Maharashtra
      • Sina River
      • Nira River
      • Mula-Mutha River
        • Mula River
        • Mutha River
      • Chandani River
      • Kamini River
      • Moshi Riverf65r
      • Ambi River
      • Bori River
      • Man River
      • Bhogwati River
      • Indrayani River
        • Kundali River
      • Kumandala River
      • Ghod River
      • Bhama River
      • Pavna River
    • Malaprabha River
    • Ghataprabha River
    • Varma River
    • Koyna River in Satara district of Maharashtra state
Andhra Pradesh Coastal Rivers

Rivers like vamsadhara and nagavalli are the two coastal rivers in srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh

Sharada river starts at Devarapally in visakhapatnam district and drains in to the Bay of Bengal

Penner River Basin
  • Penner River
Kaveri River Basin
  • Kaveri River (Kaveri)
    • Kollidam (distributary)
    • Amaravati River
    • Arkavathy River
    • Mettur Dam
    • Bhavani River
    • Hemavati River
    • Kabini River
Tamil Nadu Coastal Rivers
  • Thamirabarani River
  • Palar River
  • Vaigai River
  • Vellar
    • Vasishta Nadi
    • Sweta Nadi
  • Cooum River
  • Adyar River

Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea

Karnataka Coastal Rivers

The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Karnataka join Arabian sea.

  • Kali River
  • Netravati River
  • Sharavathi River
  • Aghanashini River
  • List of rivers of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts
Kerala Coastal Rivers

The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Kerala to join Arabian sea.

  • Periyar River
  • Bharathapuzha River
  • Pamba River
  • List of rivers of Kerala
Coastal rivers of Goa
  • Tiracol
  • Chapora
  • Baga
  • Mandovi River

Mandovi River,known as Mhadai in Western Ghats of Goa and Karnataka, has three sources viz., the Degao, the Nanevadichi Nhõi (nhõi means river in Konkani) and Gavali the last two sources go dry in summer season. The main origin of the river, in the form of a spring, even during Summer season, is at Bavtyacho Dongor hills near Degao village in Khanapur Taluka of Belgaum Dist in Karnataka State. The three streams confluence at the Kabnali village whereafter it is known as Mhadai, which has an easterly flow initially, then flows north and finally turns to the west on entering Goa. Mhadai River enters Goa between Krisnapur (Karnataka) and Kadval (Goa) villages. The tributaries of the Mhadai are the Nersa Nala, the Chapoli and Kapoli nala, the Bail Nala, the Volo Panshiro ( Karnataka), the Suko Panshiro, the Harparo, the Nanodyachi Nhõi, the Vellsachi Nhõi, the Valpoichi Nhõi, the Ghadghadyachi Nhõi, the Valvanti/ Volvot, the Divcholchi Nhõi, the Asnoddchi Nhõi, the Khandeaparchi Nhõi, the Mhapxechi Nhõi, Xinkerchi Nhõi etc. It is the longest River of Goa with a reported length of 105 km.

  • Zuari River
  • Sal
  • Talpona
  • Galgibag
Maharashtra Coastal Rivers
  • Shastri River
  • Gad River
  • Vashishti River
  • Savitri River
  • Patalganga River
  • Ulhas River
    • Thane Creek (distributary)
    • Vasai Creek (distributary)
  • Mithi River or Mahim River
  • Oshiwara River
  • Dahisar River
  • Tansa River in Thane
  • Vaitarna River
  • Surya River
Tapti River Basin

Tapti River and its tributaries

  • Tapti River in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
    • Gomai River in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra
    • Arunavati River in Dhule district of Maharashtra
    • Panzara River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts of Maharashtra
      • Kaan River in Dhule district
    • Aner River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts
    • Girna River in Nashik, Malegaon, Jalgaon districts
      • Titur River in Jalgaon district
    • Waghur River in Jalgaon, Aurangabad districts
    • Purna River in Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Jalgaon, Navsari districts of Gujarat, Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh
      • Nalganga River in Buldhana district
      • Vaan River in Buldhana, Akola, Amravati districts of Maharashtra
      • Morna River in Akola, Washim districts
      • Katepurna River in Akola, Washim districts
      • Umaa River in Akola, Washim districts
    • Sangiya River in Amravati district of Maharashtra
Narmada River Basin
  • Narmada River
    • Kolar River in Sehore
    • Barna River in Raisen
    • Hiren River
    • Tawa River
    • Burhner River
Mahi River Basin
Sabarmati River Basin
Indus River Basin
  • Indus River (largely in Pakistan)
    • Panjnad River (Pakistan)
      • Sutlej River (Northern India and Pakistan)
      • Chenab River (largely in Pakistan)
        • Ravi River (largely in Pakistan)
        • Jhelum River (in Pakistan and Indian Kashmir)
          • Neelum River or Kishanganga
        • Tawi River
    • Shyok River
      • Nubra River, rising from the meltwater of the Siachen Glacier
      • Chang Chenmo River
      • Galwan River
    • Suru River
      • Dras River
      • Shingo River
    • Yapola River
    • Zanskar River
      • Markha River
      • Khurna River
      • Tsarap River
      • Doda River
    • Hanley River

Rivers flowing into inner part of India

  • Ghaggar River in Haryana, Rajasthan
  • Musi River at Hyderabad, India
  • Samir River, India/ Gujarat

Alphabetical list:-


Bhadra (Karnataka), Bharathapuzha(Kerala), brahmaputra river, Chenab River


Falgu River

Gadhi River, Ganges River, Gambhir River, Gandak, Gayathripuzha, Ghaggar River, Ghaghara River, Ghataprabha, Girija River, Girna River,Godavari River, Gomti River, Gunjavni River

Halali River, Hoogli River


Indus River, Indravati River,

Jaldhaka, Jhelum River, Jayamangali River at tumkur district, River Jambhira

Kabini River, Kadalundi River, Kaagini River, Kali River- Karnataka, Kali River- Uttarakhand, Kali Sindh River, Kaliasote River, Karmanasha,Kallayi River Kalpathipuzha, Kameng River, Kanhan River, Kamla Balan bihar, Kannadipuzha, Karnaphuli River, Kaveri River, Kelna River,Kelo River Khadakpurna River, Kodoor River, Koel River, Kolab River, Kollidam River, Kosi River, Koyna River, Krishna River, Kundali River,kaushiga River, Kuwanav River, Ken River

Lachen River, Lachung River, Lakshmana Tirtha River, Luni River,


Mahanadi River, Mahananda River, Mahakali River, Mahi River, Mandovi River, Meenachil River, Meghna River, Mithi River, Mula River, Musi River, Mutha River, Malaprabha, Manorama River,

Narmada River, Nethravathi River, Nag River (Maharashtra)

Palar River, Pamba River, Pahuj River, Pamba(Kerala), Panjnad River, Panzara River, Parambikulam River, Parbati River (Himachal Pradesh),Parbati River (Madhya Pradesh), Parbati River (Rajasthan), Payaswini, Pench River, Penganga River, Penner River, Periyar River, Ponnaiyar River, Pranhita River, Purna River,Pluest river [Poonch J&K], Panchaganga River


Ramganga, Rangeet River, Ravi River, Rihand River, Rukmavati River, Rupnarayan River, Rapti River, Ram Rekha River,

Saryu River, Sarswati River, Sabarmati River, Sankh River, Shalmala River, Sharavathi River, Shimsha River, Shipra River, Sindh River, Sita River, Son River, Souparnika River, South Koel River, Subarnarekha River, Sutlej River, Surya River, Swarna River,

Tansa River, Tapti River, Tawa River, Teesta River, Thuthapuzha, Tons River Tunga River, Tungabhadra River, Thamirabarani River Tedi River,


Vaan River, Vaigai River, Varuna Vashishti River, Vedavathi River,Vrishabhavathi, Vishwamitri River

Ulhas River, (ural river)

Wainganga River, Wagh River, Wardha River, wehashli river


Yamuna River,

Zuari River,

India- 1983 Cricket World Cup


1983 Cricket World Cup Photos----



In the 1983 Cricket World Cup, India was given a boost in that it would be able to play two matches against each of the three teams in its pool. The only minnows in the World Cup were the Zimbabwe cricket team, a team that India was grouped with. India were also grouped with the West Indies and Australia, creating formidable matchups for a team that had become known for its inability to perform in the World Cup.

India opened up their campaign against the favourites, the West Indies. But it shocked all observers with a 34 run victory thanks to a strong performance from Yashpal Sharma (89 from 120 balls, 9 fours). India totalled up 262 in 60 overs and tumbled the West Indies out for 228, thanks to a quick 3 wickets from Ravi Shastri. A confident team went on to deal out a thrashing against Zimbabwe, chasing down the total of 156 with 23 overs and 5 wickets to spare, helped by a half-century from Sandeep Patil (50 from 54 balls, 7 fours, 1 six). Madan Lal was the destroyer in chief with his three wickets. However, the confidence and morale were short-lived as India was dealt out a 162 run thrashing from Australia 2 days later. India collapsed to 158 attempting to chase Australia's mammoth 320.

As India entered the second half of the group stage, they opened up with a loss against the West Indies by 66 runs. Vivian Richards (119 from 146 balls) took the West Indies to 282 in 60 overs, a score that India was unable to chase despite Mohinder Amarnath's (80 from 139 balls) good innings. India's next match against Zimbabwe was to become famous for the remainder of history. The favourites, India, were 5-17 by an emerging Zimbabwe bowling lineup. A defeat would have made qualifying for the semifinal impossible, but Kapil Dev's (175 from 138 balls, 16 fours, 6 sixes)* famous innings took India to 266 (he combined with Syed Kirmani (24 from 56 balls, 2 fours) in a 126 run 9th wicket partnership). The Zimbabwe batsmen got starts but were once again hampered by Kapil Dev and Madan Lal who got 4 wickets between them. India ended up winning by 31 runs. However, the last match against Australia was still a must win. But India made light work, winning by 118 runs thanks to 4-wicket hauls by Madan Lal and Roger Binny.

India's semi-final match against England contained no drama. India coasting to a 6 wicket victory. The major contributors were Yashpal Sharma (61 from 115 balls, 3 fours, 2 sixes), Mohinder Amarnath (46 from 92 balls, 4 fours, 1 six), and Sandeep Patil (51 from 32 balls, 8 fours) with the bat. Kapil Dev picked up 3-35 to seal a victory that took India to the World Cup final. The final was considered somewhat of an anticlimax, most expecting a clear West Indies win although India had beaten them in the preliminary rounds. The West Indies tumbled India out for 183, with Kris Srikkanth (38 from 57 balls, 7 fours, 1 six) top scoring, and were cruising on their way to a memorable victory at 2-57, with Vivian Richards (33 from 28 balls) at the head before suffering a major collapse. They were annihilated by the Indian bowlers and reached 6-76 before providing some sort of resistance. They were all out for 140, India won by 43 runs. The heroes of the day were Mohinder Amarnath (3/12 and 26) and Kris Srikkanth (top scorer with 38).

The Indian Squad that won the 1983 World Cup comprised:

  • Mohinder Amarnath
  • Kirti Azad
  • Roger Binny
  • Kapil Dev (captain)
  • Sunil Gavaskar
  • Syed Kirmani (wicketkeeper)
  • Madan Lal
  • Sandeep Patil
  • Balwinder Sandhu
  • Yashpal Sharma
  • Ravi Shastri
  • Kris Srikkanth
  • Sunil Valson
  • Dilip Vengsarkar

India's record: 6−2 (champions)

Indian Sports


Cricketers in a game in front of nearly-full stands.

A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

India's official national sport is field hockey, administered by Hockey India. India's hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and 8 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games, making it one of the world's most successful national hockey teams ever. Cricket, however, is by far the most popular sport; the India cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, and shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); and domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy. In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League, a Twenty20 competition.

India is home to several traditional sports which originated in the country and continue to remain fairly popular. These include kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. One of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, Yuddha, Silambam and Varma Kalai, originated in India. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are India's highest awards for achievements in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.

Chess, commonly held to have originated in India, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian Grandmasters.Tennis has also become increasingly popular, owing to the victories of the India Davis Cup team and the success of Indian tennis players. India has a strong presence in shooting sports, winning several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports in which Indian sports-persons have won numerous awards or medals at international sporting events include badminton, boxing and wrestling. Football is a popular sport in northeastern India, West Bengal,Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.I-League is the premier Football competition in the country,it contested by 14 clubs and lasts for about 7 months.

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, such as the 1951 and the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2010 Hockey World Cup and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon and the Indian Masters. The country is scheduled to host the 2011 Cricket World Cup and the first Indian Grand Prix in 2011.

Indian Culture



The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial to his deceased wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value".

India's culture is marked by a high degree of syncretism and cultural pluralism. India's cultural tradition dates back to 8000 BCE and has a continuously recorded history for over 2,500 years. With its roots based in the Indus Valley Tradition, the Indian culture took a distinctive shape during the 11th century BCE Vedic age which laid the foundation of Hindu philosophy, mythology, literary tradition and beliefs and practices, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga and moksha. It has managed to preserve established traditions while absorbing new customs, traditions, and ideas from invaders and immigrants and spreading its cultural influence to other parts of Asia, mainly South East and East Asia.

Indian religions form one of the most defining aspects of Indian culture. Major dhármic religions which were founded in India include Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Considered to be a successor to the ancient Vedic religion, Hinduism has been shaped by the various schools of thoughts based on the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras and the Bhakti movement.Buddhism originated in India in 5th century BCE and prominent early Buddhist schools, such as Theravāda and Mahāyāna, gained dominance during the Maurya Empire. Though Buddhism entered a period of gradual decline in India 5th century CE onwards, it played an influential role in shaping Indian philosophy and thought.

Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed asjātis or castes. Several influential social reform movements, such as the Bramho Shômaj, the Arya Samāja and the Ramakrishna Mission, have played a pivotal role in the emancipation of Dalits (or "untouchables") and other lower-caste communities in India. However, the majority of Dalits continue to live in segregation and are often persecuted and discriminated against.

Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm, although nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages arranged by their parents and other respected family members, with the consent of the bride and groom. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low. Child marriage is still a common practice, more so in rural India, with half of women in India marrying before the legal age of 18.

Indian cuisine is characterised by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use of herbs and spices. The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east) and wheat (predominantly in the north). Spices, such as black pepper which are now consumed world wide, are originally native to the Indian subcontinent. Chili pepper, which was introduced by the Portuguese, is also widely used in Indian cuisine.

One of the fourteen gopurams of the Meenakshi Temple complex in Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Dedicated to Hindu God Shiva and his consort Meenakshi, the temple is considered to be the foremost religious and cultural center of Tamil people and is one of the holiest Hindu sites in India.

Traditional Indian dress varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin, although several are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. Some popular festivals are Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Onam,Vijayadashami, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, Buddha Jayanti, Moharram andVaisakhi. India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories — Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanthi. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and are a very public affair.

Indian architecture is one area that represents the diversity of Indian culture. Much of it, including notable monuments such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal architecture and South Indian architecture, comprises a blend of ancient and varied local traditions from several parts of the country and abroad. Vernacular architecture also displays notable regional variation.

Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music largely encompasses the two genres – North Indian Hindustani, South Indian Carnatic traditions and their various offshoots in the form of regional folk music. Regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter.

Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of West Bengal, Jharkhand , sambalpuri of Orissa , the ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam.

Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of Maharashtra, the burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.

The Indian film industry is the largest in the world. Bollywood, based in Mumbai, makes commercial Hindi films and is the most prolific film industry in the world. Established traditions also exist in Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Tamil, and Telugu language cinemas.

The earliest works of Indian literature were transmitted orally and only later written down. These included works of Sanskrit literature – such as the early Vedas, the epics Mahābhārata and Ramayana, the drama Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry such as the Mahākāvya – and the Tamil language Sangam literature. Among Indian writers of the modern era active in Indian languages or English, Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize in 1913.

Indian Demographics


Map of India. High population density areas (above 1000 persons per square kilometer) are the Lakshadweep Islands, Kolkata and other parts of the Ganga (Ganges) river basin, Mumbai, Bangalore, and the southwest coast. Low density areas (below 100) include the western desert, east Kashmir, and the eastern frontier.

Population density map of India.

With an estimated population of 1.2 billion, India is the world's second most populous country. The last 50 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity due to the "green revolution". The percentage of Indian population living in urban areas has consistently grown; from 1991 to 2001, India's urban population increased by 31.2%. In 2001, about 285 million Indians lived in urban areas while more than 70% of India's population resided in rural areas. As per the 2001 census, there are twenty seven million-plus cities, with the largest cities being Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata.

India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the union. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a 'subsidiary official language;' it is also important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. In addition, every state and union territory has its own official languages, and the constitution also recognises in particular 21 "scheduled languages".

As per the 2001 census, over 800 million Indians (80.5%) were Hindu. Other religious groups include Muslims (13.4%), Christians (2.3%),Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Zoroastrians and Bahá'ís. Tribals constitute 8.1% of the population. India has the third-highest Muslim population in the world and has the highest population of Muslims for a non-Muslim majority country.

India's literacy rate is 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% for males). The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 91% while Bihar has the lowest at 47%. The national human sex ratio is 944 females per 1,000 males. India's median age is 24.9, and the population growth rate of 1.38% per annum; there are 22.01 births per 1,000 people per year. Though India has one of the world's most diverse and modern healthcare systems, the country continues to face several public health-related challenges. According to the World Health Organization, 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated water and breathing in polluted air. There are about 60 physicians per 100,000 people in India.

India- Economy


View from ground of a modern 30-story building.

The Bombay Stock Exchange, in Mumbai, is Asia's oldest and India's largest stock exchange by market capitalisation.

In 2009, India's nominal GDP stood at US$1.243 trillion, which makes it the eleventh-largest economy in the world. If PPP is taken into account, India's economy is the fourth largest in the world at US$3.561 trillion, corresponding to a per capita income of US$3,100. The country ranks 139th in nominal GDP per capita and 128th in GDP per capita at PPP. With an average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% for the past two decades, India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

Before 1991, the Indian government followed protectionist and socialist-inspired policies because of which the Indian economy was largely closed to the outside world and suffered from extensive state intervention and regulation. After an acute balance of payments crisis, the nation liberalised its economy and has since moved towards a free-market economy. Since then, the emphasis has been to use foreign trade and investment as integral parts of India's economy. Currently, India's economic system is portrayed as a capitalist model with the influx of private enterprise.

India has the world's second largest labour force, with 467 million people. In terms of output, the agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes. Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery and software. India's external trade has reached a relatively moderate share of 24% of GDP in 2006, up from 6% in 1985. In 2008, India's share of world trade was about 1.68%; in 2009, it was the world's fifteenth largest importer and eighteenth largest exporter. Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures. Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, chemicals.

Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car.India's annual car exports have surged fivefold in the past five years.

During the late 2000s, India's economic growth averaged 7.5% a year. Over the past decade, hourly wage rates in India have more than doubled. According to a 2007 McKinsey Global Institute report, since 1985, India's robust economic growth has shifted 431 million Indians out of poverty and by 2030, India's middle class population will rise to more than 580 million people.In 2009, the Global Competitiveness Report ranked India 16th in financial market sophistication, 24th in banking sector, 27th in business sophistication and 30th in innovation; ahead of several advanced economies. Seven of the world's top 15 technology outsourcing companies are based in India and the country is viewed as the second most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States. India's consumer market is currently the world's thirteenth largest and is expected to become the fifth largest by 2030. India has the world's fastest growing telecommunication industry, adding about 10 million subscribers during 2008–09 period. The country has the world's second fastest growing automobile industry, with domestic sales increasing by 26% during the 2009–10 period and exports increasing by 36% during the 2008–09 period.

Despite India's impressive economic growth over recent decades, it still contains the largest concentration of poor people in the world.The percentage of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of $1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms Rs 21.6 a day in urban areas and Rs 14.3 in rural areas in 2005) decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005. Since 1991, inter-state economic inequality in India has consistently grown; the per capita net state domestic product of India's richest states is about 3.2 times that of the poorest states.Even though India has avoided famines in recent decades, half of children are underweight and about 46% of Indian children under the age of three suffer from malnutrition.

A 2007 Goldman Sachs report projected that "from 2007 to 2020, India’s GDP per capita will quadruple," and that the Indian GDP will surpass that of the United States before 2050, but India "will remain a low-income country for several decades, with per capita incomes well below its other BRIC peers." Although the Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades; its growth has been uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas. The World Bank suggests that India must continue to focus on public sector reform, infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, improvement in transport, energy security, and health and nutrition.

India- Flora and fauna


Regarded as the "queen of Indian flowers", the Lotus is the national flower of India and is considered sacred by Hindus and Buddhists.

India, which lies within the Indomalaya ecozone, displays significant biodiversity. One of eighteen megadiverse countries, it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.

India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and northeastern India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; the teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. According to latest report, less than 12% of India's landmass is covered by dense forests.

Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. Consequently, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the Asiatic Lion, the Bengal Tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; in addition, the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980. Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, India hosts thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

India- Geography


Map of India. Most of India is yellow (elevation 100–1000 m). Some areas in the south and mideast are brown (above 1000 m). Major river valleys are green (below 100 m).

Topographic map of India.

India, the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, sits atop the Indian tectonic plate, a minor plate within the Indo-Australian Plate.

India's defining geological processes commenced seventy-five million years ago, when the Indian subcontinent, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a northeastwards drift—lasting fifty million years—across the then unformed Indian Ocean. The subcontinent's subsequent collision with the Eurasian Plate and subduction under it, gave rise to the Himalayas, the planet's highest mountains, which now abut India in the north and the north-east. In the former seabed immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough, which, having gradually been filled with river-borne sediment, now forms the Indo-Gangetic Plain. To the west of this plain, and cut off from it by the Aravalli Range, lies the Thar Desert.

The original Indian plate now survives as peninsular India, the oldest and most geologically stable part of India, and extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel ranges run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. To their south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the left and right by the coastal ranges, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively; the plateau contains the oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6°44' and 35°30' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.

India's coast is 7,517 kilometers (4,700 mi) long; of this distance, 5,423 kilometers (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India, and 2,094 kilometers (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coast consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches, 11% rocky coast including cliffs, and 46% mudflats or marshy coast.

The Himalayas form the mountainous landscape of Northern India. Seen here is Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir.

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges (Ganga) and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi, whose extremely low gradient causes disastrous floods every year. Major peninsular rivers whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea. Among notable coastal features of India are the marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the alluvial Sundarbans delta, which India shares with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.

India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian Katabatic wind from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.

India- Foreign relations and military


Jointly developed by Sukhoi and Hindustan Aeronautics, the Su-30 MKI"Flanker-H" is the Indian Air Force's prime air superiority fighter.

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly advocated for the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia and played a pioneering role in the Non-Aligned Movement. India was involved in two brief military interventions in neighbouring countries – the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka and Operation Cactus in Maldives. India has a tense relationship with neighbouring Pakistan and the two countries went to war in 1947 and 1965 over the Kashmir dispute. After the Sino-Indian War and the 1965 war, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. In 1971, a third war broke out between India and Pakistan which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). Additional skirmishes have taken place between the two nations over the disputed Siachen Glacier. In 1999, India and Pakistan fought an undeclared war over the Kargil district.

In recent years, India has played an influential role in the SAARC and the WTO. India has provided as many as 55,000 Indian military and police personnel to serve in thirty-five UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. India is also an active participant in various multilateral forums, particularly the East Asia Summit and the G8+5. Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened relations with the United States and the People's Republic of China. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia and Africa.

Two seated men conversing. The first is dressed in Indian clothing and turban and sits before an Indian flag; the second is in a Western business suit and sits before a Russian flag.

India and Russia share an extensive economic, defence and technological relationship. Shown here is PM Manmohan Singh with President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8 Summit.

India maintains the third-largest military force in the world, which consists of the Indian Army,Navy, Air Force and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command. The official Indian defence budget for 2010 stood at US$31.9 billion (or 2.12% of GDP). According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of PPP stood at US$72.7 billion. The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. India maintains close defence cooperation with Russia, Israel and France, who are the chief suppliers of arms. Defence contractors, such as the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL), oversee indigenous development of sophisticated arms and military equipment, including ballistic missiles, fighter aircraft and main battle tanks, to reduce India's dependence on foreign imports.

China's repeated threats to intervene in the 1965 war in support of Pakistan convinced India to develop nuclear weapons to counter Chinese nuclear tests. India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT which it considers to be flawed and discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine. On 10 October 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement between India and the United States was signed, prior to which India received waivers from the IAEA and the NSG which ended restrictions on nuclear technology commerce and recognised India as the world's sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. Following the NSG waiver, India has also signed civilian nuclear energy cooperation agreements with other nations including Russia, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

India- Politics


The Secretariat Building, in New Delhi, houses key government offices.

India is the most populous democracy in the world. It has operated under a multi-party system for most of its history. For most of the years since independence, the federal government has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Politics in the states have been dominated by national parties like the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority.

Within Indian political culture, the Indian National Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" and the Bharatiya Janata Party is considered centre-right or "conservative". The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the state of emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years. As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority, the INC formed a minority government under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term.

The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term.

In the 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by various Left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP. The UPA again came into power in the 2009 general election; however, the representation of the Left leaning parties within the coalition has significantly reduced. Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.

India- Government


India is federation with a parliamentary form of government, governed under the Constitution of India. It is a constitutional republic and representative democra, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law." Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the centre and the states. The government is regulated by a checks and balances defined by Indian Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.


The Constitution of India, the longest and the most exhaustive among constitutions of independent nations in the world, came into force on 26 January 1950. The preamble of the constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. India has a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Its form of government was traditionally described as being 'quasi-federal' with a strong centre and weaker states, but it has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic and social changes.

President and Prime Minister:-

The President of India is the head of state elected indirectly by an electoral college for a five-year term. The Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the President, the Prime Minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of Parliament. The executive branch consists of the President, Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the Prime Minister and his Council being directly responsible to the lower house of the Parliament.


The Legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha, a permanent body, has 245 members serving staggered six year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population. 543 of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms. The other two members are nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community if the President is of the opinion that the community is not adequately represented.


India has a unitary three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 21 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts. It is judicially independent, and has the power to declare the law and to strike down Union or State laws which contravene the Constitution. The role as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution is one of the most important functions of the Supreme Court.

Administrative divisions:-

India consists of 28 states and seven Union Territories. All states, and the two union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments patterned on the Westminster model. The other five union territories are directly ruled by the Centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were formed on a linguistic basis. Since then, this structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and eventually into villages.

Map of India showing its states and territories

The 28 states and 7 union territories of India


  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  1. Haryana
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Jammu and Kashmir
  4. Jharkhand
  5. Karnataka
  6. Kerala
  7. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  1. Rajasthan
  2. Sikkim
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Tripura
  5. Uttar Pradesh
  6. Uttarakhand
  7. West Bengal

Union Territories:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry

India- 20th Centuries


Two smiling men in robes sitting on the ground, with bodies facing the viewer and with heads turned toward each other. The younger wears a white Nehru cap; the elder is bald and wears glasses. A half dozen other people are in the background.

Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become India's first prime minister in 1947.

In the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) and other political organisations. Several Indian radical revolutionaries, such as Subhash Chandra Bose and Bhagat Singh, led an armed rebellion against the British Raj.However, the defining aspect of the Indian independence movement was the nonviolent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi and the INC. Under the leadership of Gandhi, millions of Indians participated in the Quit India civil disobedience movement against the British Raj.

In September 1939, India declared war on Germany and at the height of the World War Il, more than 2.5 million Indian soldiers were fighting against the Axis powers. The Indian Army was one of the largest Allied forces contingents which took part in the North and East African, Western Desert and the Italian Campaign and played a crucial role in halting the progress of Imperial Japan in the South-East Asian theatre. However, certain Indian nationalists collaborated with the Axis powers to overthrow the British Raj. The Indian National Army (INA), led by Bose, forged an alliance with the Axis powers and fought an unsuccessful military campaign against British India.

In 1943, a perceived shortage of food leading to large-scale hoarding and soaring food prices coupled with poor food distribution mechanism and inadequate response of the British officials resulted in a catastrophic famine in the Bengal region which killed about 1.5 to 3 million people. After World War II, a number of mutinies broke out in the Air Force and Navy and the INA trials caused considerable public unrest.

Independence and afterwards

On 15 August 1947, the British Indian Empire was dissolved following which the Muslim-majority areas were partitioned to form a separate state of Pakistan. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people. On 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect under which India was established as a secular and a democratic state.

Since independence, India has faced challenges from religious violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies, especially in Jammu and Kashmir and northeastern India. Since the 1990s, terrorist attacks have affected many Indian cities. India has unresolved territorial disputes with the People's Republic of China, which, in 1962, escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999.

India is a state armed with nuclear weapons; having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, followed by another five tests in 1998.From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist-inspired policies. The economy was shackled by extensive regulation, protectionism and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow economic growth. Beginning 1991, significant economic reforms have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, increasing its global clout.

Map of India

INDIA- My Country

India, Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Mainland India is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east; and it is bordered by Pakistan to the west; Bhutan, the People's Republic of China and Nepal to the north; and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. In the Indian Ocean, mainland India and the Lakshadweep Islands are in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share maritime border with Thailand and the Indonesian island of Sumatra in the Andaman Sea. India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi).
Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism,Jainism and Sikhism—originated here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early 18th century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence which was marked by a non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.
India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual and multiethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The Indian economy is the world's eleventh largest economy by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity. Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies in the world; however, the country continues to face several poverty, illiteracy, corruption and public health related challenges. India is classified as a newly industrialised country and is one of the four BRIC nations. It is the world's sixth de facto nuclear weapons state and has the third-largest standing armed force in the world, while its military expenditure ranks 10th in the world.India is a regional power in South Asia.
It is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the World Trade Organisation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the G20 and the G8+5; a member of the Commonwealth of Nation; and an observer state in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.


The name India is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit  सिन्धु Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), the people of the Indus. The Constitution of India and common usage in various Indian languages also recognise Bharat  as an official name of equal status. The name Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures. Hindustan, originally a Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” referring to northern India, is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared about 8,500 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back to 3400 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country.
Damaged brown painting of a reclining man and woman.

Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 6th century
In the 3rd century BCE, most of South Asia was united into the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great. From the 3rd century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient "India's Golden Age". Empires in southern India included those of the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Vijayanagara Empire. Science, technology, engineering, art, logic, language, literature,mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings.
Following Islamic invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 12th centuries, much of northern India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. Under the rule of Akbar the Great, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as well as religious harmony. Mughal emperors gradually expanded their empires to cover large parts of the subcontinent. However, in northeastern India, the dominant power was the Ahom kingdom of Assam, among the few kingdoms to have resisted Mughal subjugation. The first major threat to Mughal imperial power came from a Hindu Rajput king Maha Rana Pratap of Mewar in the 16th century. By early 1700s, the Sikh Empire and the Marathas had emerged as formidable foes of the Mughals. Following the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire entered a period of gradual decline and by mid-18th century, a large portion of the Mughal territory came under the control of the Hindu Maratha Empire.
From the 16th century, European powers such as Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain established trading posts and later took advantage of internal conflicts to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of India was under the control of the British East India Company. A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, known as India's First War of Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny, seriously challenged the Company's control but eventually failed. As a result of the instability, India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown.
Our National Flag:-
Horizontal tricolour flag (deep saffron, white, and green). In the centre of the white is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes.
Our National Emblem:-
Three lions facing left, right,and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto "सत्यमेव जयते".
Our National Anthem:-
Jana gana mana adhināyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā
Punjāba Sind Gujarāta Marāthā
Drāvida Utkala Banga
Vindhya Himāchala Yamunā Gangā
Ucchala jaladhi taranga
Tava śubha nāme jāge
Tava śubha āśisa māge
Gāhe tava jaya gāthā
Jana gana mangala dāyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhāta
Jaya he jaya he jaya he
Jaya jaya jaya jaya he!

Its English Version:-
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory, Victory to thee.
Our National Song:-
vande mātaram
sujalām suphalām
śasya śyāmalām
vande mātaram
śubhra jyotsnā
pulakita yāminīm
phulla kusumita
sumadhura bhāsinīm
sukhadām varadām
vande mātaram

Its English Version:-
I bow to thee, Mother,
richly-watered, richly-fruited,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
the Mother!
Her nights rejoicing
in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully
with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter,
sweet of speech,
The Mother,
giver of boons, giver of bliss!

Capital:-  New Delhi
Largest city:- Mumbai
Official Language:- Hindi, English
Its Regional Language:- 1)Assamese
                    2) Bengali
                     3) Bodo
                   4) Dogri
                   5) Gujarati
                      6) Hindi
                   7) Kannada
                     8) Kashmiri
                    9) Konkini
                     10) Maithili
                      12) Manipuri
                    13) Marathi
                       15) Oria
                  18) Santali
                    20) Tamil
                      22) Urdu
Its National Language:- HINDI
Demonym:- Indian
President- Pratibha Patil
Prime Minister- Manmohan Singh( INC- Indian National Congress)
Speaker of the House- Meira Kumar(INC) [ She is also the 1st Indian Woman Speaker)
Chiefe Justice- S. H. Kapadia
Upper house- Rajya Sabha
Lower House- Lok Sabha
Independence:-  from the United Kingdom
Declared- 15 August 1947
Republic- 26 January 1950
             3,287,240 Square Killometer
Water- 9.56%
Its Currency:- Indian Rupee
GDP(PPP):-2010 estimate
Total- $3.862 trillion
Per Capita- $3,176
GDP(nominal):- 2010 estimate
Total- $1.367 trillion
Per Capita- $1,124
Royal Bengal Tiger
Indian Peacock
Aquatic animal:-
Field hockey